Chapter 10.   The flow of liquids in open ducts.

 

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Introduction.

The study of open channels

The concept of specific energy

Specific energy and the critical depth

The critical depth, tranquil flow and rapid flow

Transition between tranquil and rapid flow and vice versa

Loss in a hydraulic jump

The Froude number

The oblique hydraulic jump

The speed of waves in channels

Flow over a hump in the bed of a channel

Control of rivers

The sluice gate

The radial or Tainter gate

Measurement of flow

The broad crested weir

The Venturi flume

 Friction losses in channels

Endnote