Chapter 13   The flow of gases through pipes and nozzles


This chapter is in four parts.


Click on part to read the part as one text


Click on section headings to go to sections


Part 1  Introduction to the chapter


          The physical properties of gases

          Compression and expansion of gas


Part 2  Flow of gases in pipes



          The continuity equation applied to steady flow in pipes

          The physics of conveying gas through a pipe

          Worked examples


Part 3 The convergent-divergent nozzle



          The mode of operation of a convergent-divergent nozzle

          Modelling using properties

          Modelling the flow using the Mach number

          Using these expressions

          Assessment of these two methods

          The practical use of convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles __          Steam turbines   Rockets  The supersonic gas turbine engine

          The idea of having a correct back-pressure

          The concept of an efficiency for a nozzle


Part 4  The plane shock wave.


          The plane shock wave

          Velocity ratio and pressure ratio across a shock wave in terms of Mach number

          The behaviour of the flow in a nozzle as the back-pressure is increased

          The mechanics of a shock wave

          Practical consequences of the presence of a plane shock wave


Worked examples on nozzles