Chapter 13   The flow of gases through pipes and nozzles

 

This chapter is in four parts.

 

Click on part to read the part as one text

 

Click on section headings to go to sections

 

Part 1  Introduction to the chapter

          Introduction

          The physical properties of gases

          Compression and expansion of gas

 

Part 2  Flow of gases in pipes

 

          Introduction

          The continuity equation applied to steady flow in pipes

          The physics of conveying gas through a pipe

          Worked examples

 

Part 3 The convergent-divergent nozzle

         

          Introduction

          The mode of operation of a convergent-divergent nozzle

          Modelling using properties

          Modelling the flow using the Mach number

          Using these expressions

          Assessment of these two methods

          The practical use of convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles __          Steam turbines   Rockets  The supersonic gas turbine engine

          The idea of having a correct back-pressure

          The concept of an efficiency for a nozzle

 

Part 4  The plane shock wave.

          Introduction

          The plane shock wave

          Velocity ratio and pressure ratio across a shock wave in terms of Mach number

          The behaviour of the flow in a nozzle as the back-pressure is increased

          The mechanics of a shock wave

          Practical consequences of the presence of a plane shock wave

 

Worked examples on nozzles