Chapter 22 Water Turbines


This chapter is in four sections. Click on section to open it.


Section 1 Introduction

Overview of the extraction of energy from a flowing fluid

Potted history of water power

The hydro-electric scheme

The physics of energy stored in water by virtue of its position in the gravitational field


Section 2 The Archimedean screw and the water wheel

The Archimedean screw

The water wheel

The dip wheel for raising water


Section 3 The development of the Pelton wheel and the Turgo turbine

The undershot water wheel

The Pelton wheel turbine

Simple analysis of the performance of a Pelton wheel

The Turgo wheel


Worked examples on Pelton Wheel turbines


Section 4 The pressure turbine


Inward flow turbines


The guide apparatus

Specific speed for turbines

The general application of the different types of turbine


The draught tube

Thoma's cavitation parameter

Runner shapes for pressure turbines

Velocity diagrams

Blade shape for a Kaplan turbine runner

Final comments


Worked examples on pressure turbines